The HYPER lab mission is to efficiently advance the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of cryogenic and/or hydrogen systems for the betterment of humanity. We most efficiently accomplish this mission by cultivating a community of professional practice, so that alumni continue the practice elsewhere. “Professional Practice” is a spine that runs through all that we do. As HYPER grew from a lab into a community over the years, the need to standardize our onboarding and training processes to expedite the transition to professionals emerged. From this need, “Professional Practice: A Compendium for the HYPER Community” was created. Informally called “the Compendium”, the document lives, and is continuously improved on our Microsoft Teams Community workspace. Periodically we will update the version here as changes are made.
What are you looking for?
A Compendium for the HYPER Community
Washington State University
HYdrogen Properties for Energy Research Laboratory
Professionals are magicians. It’s true even in engineering – all those formulas, integrals, derivations; it all takes a tremendous amount of dedication and cognition to piece together. With enough time and attention, you start to notice methods to the magic. You learn. But learning alone was never enough. Once you learn the methods, it’s time to start practicing. You do. But doing alone was never enough. With enough discipline and dedication to professional practice, others will learn from your performance. You teach. The goal of this document is to expedite your mastery of professional practice with the HYPER Community through this learning–doing–teaching progression.
The HYPER Community will be a place for learning things that are unlike anything you’ll learn in a classroom. We started this document so you won’t have to decipher the HYPER Community, or the lessons we’ve already learned that are no longer worth relearning.
This document covers three phases of professional practice in the HYPER Community:
Wishing you lots of mind-blowing engineering and scientific discoveries as your future colleagues,
Hannah Gardner, Ian Wells, Charles Phillips, Nathaniel Swets, Lauren Reising, The Curators, 2020
Ron Bliesner came to WSU in 2008 because he wanted to go to a college that had a good basketball team. Curious and questioning, he followed his passion for electrical circuits and heat transfer to my office door with an inquiry about undergraduate research. Soon thereafter, Ron built the Cryocatalysis Hydrogen Experiment Facility (CHEF) using parts from the local hardware store. He was the first to graduate from the lab in 2013, with a Master of Science in Mechanical Engineering. Now he’s a lead engineer at Blue Origin on the type of project that comes along only once in a Blue Moon…
Christopher Chaney, Patrick Adam, Justin Bahrami, Eli Shoemake, Alex Mattson, and Patrick Adam were a ragtag bunch between the AIAA club, courses I taught, and graduate school. Their goals coalesced with the mission to build Genii – the first liquid hydrogen fueled drone designed and built by a university team, on an entirely too small $20k budget. Their concept is now the future of drone reconnaissance for the US Army.
Ian Richardson called me before I’d even arrived at WSU in 2010 asking to begin undergraduate research. When he graduated with a Ph.D. in 2017 he had amassed over $500,000 in externally funded projects initiated from his internships at NASA. Now he’s the CEO of a WSU startup company, Protium, which focuses on liquid hydrogen technologies.
…and the most amazing — world changing — stories are likely being written right now.
The HYPER Community mission is to efficiently advance the Technology Readiness Levels of cryogenic and/or hydrogen systems for the betterment of humanity. But make no mistake about it – the HYPER Community exists for, and we most efficiently achieve this mission by, producing professionals who further the practice.
This document, like our community of professionals, is living and continuously changing. When you see opportunities for improvement to our community (including this document), act on them. Don’t grade it. Fix it.
Becoming a professional is the reason you are here, and it will be one of the hardest things you will ever do.
Congratulations on surviving! What just happened? The interview is determining the following:
|How did you end up here?||More general than the traditional “Tell me about yourself” and an invitation for you to show us something about yourself.|
|Why [insert Major here]?||What evidence do you have that this is the best title to define your career training?|
|What’s your blue sky?||What is your passion? Does this align with current Community needs?|
|What’s your role on a team?||We look for five main personality sets:
1. Driven leader/liaisons
2. Efficient Theoreticians
3. Utilitarian mechanics
4. Experienced sages
5. Empathetic communicators
|When can you work?||Can you be in the same place, at the same time, with the rest of your team?|
In the spirit of continuous improvement, we necessitate that you improve our community through your performances as you become a professional. The goal is for everyone to transcend the HYPER community with at least three freakishly awesome professional achievements unique to them, functioning as evidence of professional performance. It won’t be easy. That’s why we start people early- the next several years are the truest form of interview.
Washington State is the leading aerospace state in the US and the state with the highest percentage of clean energy. Hydrogen is the fuel of the future for both sectors. Jake knew this because he grew up in the Pacific Northwest. The name Hydrogen Properties for Energy Research (HYPER) stems from Jake’s experience writing the leading equations of state establishing the thermophysical properties of hydrogen.
But why WSU? If you don’t know what it means to be a ‘Land Grant’ Institution, then you don’t know why you’re here. Not only does our Land Grant heritage shape WSU’s past, it will shape our future. The HYPER laboratory’s mission is derived from and defined by our Land Grant heritage. Check the https://hydrogen.wsu.edu weblog and search for writings on Land-Grant for more information.
The HYPER laboratory is the only cryogenic hydrogen research laboratory in academia in the US. Space is a cryogenic vacuum; 74% of which is hydrogen by mass. Humanity’s continued evolution necessitates mastering cryogenic hydrogen.
Although Professor Leachman is the Community Director and authority of the laboratory, he prefers you to call him simply by Jake as he is a contributing professional of the community, like everyone else. Although it is important to acknowledge and respect titles like ‘Dr.’, you should always base your decisions and personal safety on the merit of what is being said in the moment. Listen politely to everyone. Do what you think is best.
The HYPER Community has many paying clients from many different sectors requiring a team of staff members to enable the HYPER community to function. Mark Parsons is the first member of the staff team and is the HYPER community manager in charge of finances, purchasing, and personnel. Mark joined the HYPER community in 2019.
To continue to develop Professional Practice in our community it is necessary to have a critical amount of Professionals Practice in the community. P.K. Northcutt II is our ‘Composer in Residence’ who routinely conducts professionalism audits in HYPER.
The Post-Doctoral Faculty and Graduate Students are defined as Community Members and, typically, serve as Team Leaders. Each team leader is responsible for delivering outcomes on the funded project goals, objectives, and tasks that honor the commitments we made to receive the funds. They are also responsible for completing their theses, dissertations, and publications that serve as the evidence required to advance their professional careers. Each team has 3-6 supporting individuals that complete the key team-roles described in the interview.
The Core Team is the exception to this structure. This team solves the problems generally faced by all of the other teams within the community, like this document. This team reports directly to Jake and Mark.
- Foster a community of professional practice.
- Tenacious improvement of our repetitive use systems.
- Freakishly awesome engineering achievements.
- Advancing the technology readiness level of cryogenic and/or hydrogen systems for the betterment of humanity.
Before you start work, there are a few things you must do. Now that we have established authority and intent, we need to tell you the ground rules and expectations for our community above and beyond those of WSU. The MOU and Performance Spec are the documents that outline this framework. Your tasks are to:
- See the Community Manager, Mark Parsons.
- Memorandum of Understanding (MOU), included later in this section
- Work Specification, included later in this section
- Get a temporary employment form (Mark)
- Be added to MS Teams (Mark)
- Fill out the I9 and set up payment
- Begin Trainings
The Hydrogen Properties for Energy Research (HYPER) community at Washington State University (WSU), founded in August of 2010, continues the mission to advance the technology readiness level of cryogenic and/or hydrogen systems for the betterment of humanity. To fulfill this mission, members of the community must endeavor to continuously improve the professionalism of both themselves and the lab community.
This Memorandum Of Understanding (MOU), drafted in August of 2018, defines and establishes mutual commitments of the Laboratory Director and Laboratory Members to promote professionalism – the pursuit of personal responsibility, self-confidence, high intellectual standards, quality of work, experienced judgement and discretion, and service to society and profession.
The Community Director is defined as the person responsible for all HYPER laboratory professional decisions, including matters regarding final approval of research products, financial commitments, legal commitments, and personnel affiliations with the laboratory.
- The Community Director shall continuously improve their own professionalism and the professionalism of the laboratory.
- The Community Director shall at all times advise lab members in their professional best interest, in accords with this MOU, and make every effort to provide opportunities for the continued professional development of lab members.
- The Community Director shall take full responsibility for the quality and accuracy of laboratory research products, e.g. papers, reports, presentations, and official external laboratory communications through the website or the media.
- The Community Director shall make every effort to secure financial support for the laboratory and lab members.
- The Community Director shall take full responsibility for laboratory fiscal commitments.
- The Community Director shall make every effort to continuously improve the safety of the laboratory.
- The Community Director shall serve as an impartial mediator in conflicts between Community Members and should a conflict arise between the Community Director and Community Member(s) find an impartial mediator.
- The Community Director shall guide the long-term mission of the laboratory to ensure continued relevancy to our societal constituencies.
Jacob Leachman, Ph.D. August 2018
A HYPER Community Member is defined as an individual who develops their professionalism by contributing to the HYPER community and research products that advance the laboratory Mission over a multi-year period.
- The Community Members shall use the laboratory community to continuously improve their own professionalism as defined in this document and by the ethical standards established by the profession they plan to enter (e.g. CSA, ASME, ASM, AIChE, IEEE, ASEE, ASCE, etc).
- The Community Members shall serve as representatives of the HYPER laboratory to our societal constituents.
- The Community Members shall make every effort to maximize the quality, dissemination, and accuracy of laboratory research products, e.g. papers, reports, presentations, and external laboratory communications through the website or the media.
- The Community Members shall make every effort to participate punctually in laboratory community events, including regular laboratory meetings and presentation/dissemination of research products by lab members.
- The Community Members shall take full responsibility for their personal safety, recognize that any safety incident reflects poorly on the lab community, and endeavor to continuously improve the safety of the laboratory for all lab members.
- The Community Members shall continuously improve the laboratory spaces (e.g. physical, financial, and virtual) to fulfill the lab Mission and the expectations of this document.
- The Community Members shall develop a mutually agreed upon project specification with the Laboratory Director and be objective and efficient with the progress and completion of their assignments and/or projects.
- The Community Members shall communicate all issues that jeopardize the expectations set forth in this document promptly to the Laboratory Director.
- The Community Members shall communicate their planned transition to Laboratory Alumni with the Laboratory Director at least three months in advance of their transition.
- The Community Members shall read and understand this HYPER Compendium in its entirety.
A HYPER Community Part-time Member is defined as an individual who contributes to the HYPER community and research products that advance the community Mission over a short or temporary time period, usually 1 semester.
- The Community Part-time Members will be given access to HYPER Community communication systems (MS Teams) and computing systems that are for professional development purposes only. Access to these systems will end at project completion. Community part-time members are expected to monitor MS Teams channels and reply within a day to direct messages and inquiries.
- The Community Part-time Members will be placed on time-slip appointment when possible. It is your responsibility to log your time and submit your time cards for approval by the Community Director or Manager.
- The Community Part-time Members shall be given a project and a HYPER laboratory member to report to for their project activities.
- The Community Part-time Members shall develop a project specification document to define the goals and objectives of their activities and the anticipated outcome/products or result of the effort in order to stay focused on project deliverables. This project specification will be mutually agreed upon and signed for approval by the Community Director and the relevant HYPER Community Member.
- The Community Part-time Members shall take full responsibility for their personal safety, recognize that any safety incident reflects poorly on the lab community, and endeavor to continuously improve the safety of the laboratory for all lab members.
- The Community Part-time Members shall continuously improve the laboratory spaces (e.g. physical, financial, and virtual) to fulfill the laboratory Mission and the expectations of this document.
- The Community Part-time Members shall communicate all issues that jeopardize the expectations set forth in this document promptly to the Community Director.
Professionalism, much like trust, can only be earned. However, the need to communicate expertise often arises when transitioning between careers. This Performance Specification Document is structured to
- Focus efforts on value added to you, your project, and the community.
- Structure these efforts in an easily communicable format for use in resumes and in interviews.
- Serve as a contract that defines the scope of your work between you, your Community Member, and the Community Director.
Your Origin Story
Every interviewer is trying to figure yours out, so why not just have it ready? Every comic-book superhero has an origin story – a defining moment that reveals both abilities, weaknesses, and drive. What’s your Origin Story?
Your Dream Team
Nearly all comic-book superheroes end up in a complimentary Dream Team serving a community with recurring needs. What’s your Dream Team? What team do you want to be working with 5 years from now? What specific accomplishments/achievements will this team view as evidence of your ability to perform amongst their ranks?
The Story-arc of a Freakishly Awesome Achievement
Let’s make a plan for creating those accomplishments and achievements. We’re hard-wired to like a good story – including during interviews and discussions with family and friends. The long-term value of your work in the lab is ultimately related to the quality of the story you are able to tell about the work you did. Good stories have a few key elements that can guide your work:
- Challenge/Problem/Need/Motivation: Why should we care about you and your problem? Why is it seriously challenging and hard?
2.Background/Insight/Prior Art: You’ve got to do some research to understand the problem and what has been previously done. Why is there a persistent gap in understanding that prevents the problem from being solved?
3.Theory/Insight/Hypothesis: When presented with a problem and the pressure and resources to solve, there is often a stroke of genius/insight that allows you to formulate your technical skills into a new or novel solution. Do enough back-of-the-envelope analysis to help us believe the idea has a chance.
4.Application/Experiment/Work: Now comes the difficult part – doing something new. Tell us the struggle. Use quantifiable metrics like number of trials, parts, etc.
5.Results/Findings/Improvements/Conclusions: Show us how the end result of your efforts solves or improves the problem. Why did this matter? Who does it help? How much does it help? What did you take away from the adventure?
You should try to have only one immediately convincing sentence in each of the above areas by the end of lab work. Do your best to draft examples now.
Making it Real
Now is the hard part – bringing this story to life by making it real. You need SMART Goals and Objectives (Specific, Measurable, Attainable, Relevant, and Time-bounded) supported by credible and quantifiable metrics (e.g. publications, external support, presentations to peers at conferences, etc.).
The overall goal/hypothesis/deliverable for my work is:
I will succeed in fulfilling/answering this goal/hypothesis/deliverable through pursuit of the following objectives/tasks:
I will demonstrate completion/achievement of these objectives via the following credible deliverables:
We do this so you don’t devolve into busy work. We’ll work together to get this document close at the start of your work. At the end of your work we’ll review this document, check to see if you fulfilled/answered your goal/hypothesis, and whether you completed your objectives in credible ways. We’ll then ask to hear your story. We want three before we’ll call you a pro. Let’s make them freakishly awesome!
(End, performance specification document)
Around this point it’s common for newcomers to ask, “What can I read to help me get up to speed?” That’s why we created “The Top Shelf” — a collection of readings, to be grokked during your time in the community, that we believe will prepare members of our community to perform as professionals:
Professionalism: “Start Finishing” by Charlie Gilkie, “The Culture Code” by Daniel Coyle, “Land Grant Universities for the Future: Higher Education for the Public Good,” by Gordon Gee and Stephen Gavazzi, “Never Split the Difference: Negotiating as if your life depends on it,” by Chris Voss, “The 7 Habits of Highly Successful People” by Stephen Covey or “How to Win Friends and Influence People” by Dale Carnegie, “The Book of Qualities” by J Ruth Gendler.
History: “Science: The Endless Frontier,” by Vannevar Bush, “Boltzmann’s Atom” by David Lindlay, “Maxwell’s Demon: How Warmth Disperses and Time Passes: The History of Heat,” by Von Baeyer, “Taming Liquid Hydrogen: The Centaur Upper Stage Rocket 1958-2002″ by Bowles and Dawson, “Mathematics and Plausible Reasoning Volume 1,” By George Polya.
Communication: “The Elements of Style” by Strunk and White, “Language in Thought and Action” by S.I. Hayakawa, “If I understood you, would I have this look on my face?” by Alan Alda, “Visualizing Information” by Tufte, “Steel like an Artist,” by Austin Kleon.
Design for Manufacturing: “Everything I need to know about Manufacturing I learned in Joe’s Garage,” by Vicki Schenk and Bill Miller, “World Class Manufacturing,” by Richard Schonberger, The Bosch Rexroth Catalog, “The Design of Everyday Things,” by Don Norman, “Why We Make Things and Why it Matters,” by Peter Korn.
Cryogenics: “Experimental Techniques for Low Temperature Measurement,” By Jack Ekin, “Cryogenic Engineering” by R.B. Scott, “Heat Transfer” by Nellis and Klein, “Thermophysical Properties of Cryogenic Fluids 2nd Edition,” by Leachman et al.
Safety: “NFPA 2-2020: Hydrogen Safety Code,” “Engineering a safer world: A systems approach to safety,” By Nancy Leveson
A conversation similar to the following occurred shortly after the HYPER lab was founded in 2010:
P.K.: “What is the goal of HYPER?”
Communities of Professional Practice require minimum amounts of the following:
- Shared Challenges
- Cohabitation of space and time
- Work and empathy.
While it’s primarily (though not exclusively) Jake’s responsibility to fulfill items 1-3, only you can fulfill 4 & 5. To help you with 4 & 5, the HYPER Community has developed a system for peer-to-peer communication and weekly Community meetings.
In 2020 WSU enabled MS Teams with our Office 365 subscription. Once you complete the MOU, you will be added to the HYPER MS Teams page.
A simple question to ask before posting is, “Does this help improve the community’s professional practice?” And to be clear, both Communities and Professional Practice are directly affected by the level of engagement.
Although the digital presence helps to support the community, it cannot fully replicate in-person exchanges. The HYPER community has weekly meetings with the purpose of lab-wide updates and continuous improvement discussions.
In the end, communities work because of cognitive surplus. We invest our energy and efforts into community because it makes us all better together.
We designed our training to minimize any gaps in knowledge while simultaneously establishing a standard for topic mastery.
Our training uses three steps:
- Learn One.
- Do One.
- Teach One.
Bosch Rexroth Build Instructions
Plumbing and Welding
Hydrogen & Cryogenics
Project Planning 101
HYPER Member Network Contacts
Dr. Jacob Leachman, 208-816-0288
Dr. Patrick Adam, 206-854-8792
Dr. Ian Richardson, 360-509-8438
Jordan Raymond, (425) 591-4803
HYPER Alumni Network
Bahrami, Justin; Fluid Systems Engineer, Blue Origin; firstname.lastname@example.org
Blackham, Thomas; Nuclear Test Engineer, Idaho National Laboratory;
Bliesner, Ron; Fluid Systems Engineer, Blue Origin; email@example.com
Cavender, Kevin; Fluid Systems Engineer, Blue Origin; firstname.lastname@example.org
Chaney, Christopher; Boom Aerospace; email@example.com
Evans, Casey; Space Systems Engineer, Lockheed-Martin; firstname.lastname@example.org
Fisher, Jake; Thermal Systems Engineer, Aerojet-Rocketdyne; email@example.com
Gavin, Patrick; Electrical Systems Engineer, Blue Origin; firstname.lastname@example.org
Haney, Jasper; Geni Industries; email@example.com
Mattson, Alex; Logistical Support Engineer, Naval Shipyard
Nixon, Chad; Nuclear Design Engineer, Kairos Power; firstname.lastname@example.org
Pedrow, Brandt; Fluid Systems Engineer, Blue Origin; email@example.com
Salmon, Kacie; Graduate Student University of Wisconsin-Madison; firstname.lastname@example.org
Shoemake, Elijah; Co-Founder, Protium; email@example.com
Applying + Resumes
(Include notes on interview processes from key companies.)
The Importance of Life-long mentorship
Stories From The Road
|What was your favorite thing about working at HYPER?||“My favorite thing about working at HYPER was the community. I gained lifelong friends working at HYPER and always looked forward to coming into the lab… I’ve always looked for that same type of community as I’ve progressed throughout my career because I know it will be a place where not only can I succeed, but I can enjoy the doing it too.”
|Chad Nixon (2014)|
|“The passion of everyone in the lab. Not a single person that was there did not have an interest in learning and contributing.”||Kevin Cavender (2017)|
|“Everyone was happy to tell me about their projects, and were available for questions if I ever had any. It made me feel like I was accepted member very quickly after I joined with HYPER.”
|Brandt Pedrow (2016)|
|“My favorite part of working at HYPER was seeing how our work had direct application to real world problems in industry and held significance to the lab and school… I enjoyed feeling like a part of something big, having a direct and integral impact to the lab, school, and the careers of those involved.”
|Chris Chaney (2014)|
|If you could give a piece of advice to a person about to join HYPER, what would it be?||“If you are new, spend as much time in the lab space as possible… Things are always happening in the lab and it is a great place to learn from others within the lab and about what projects are going on. Whether it is assisting in the setup of an experiment or brainstorming on a design, these experiences are more aligned with what you will be doing in your career than typical schoolwork.”
|Chad Nixon (2014)|
|“You will always have a customer… Learning to deliver to and communicate with customers is a skill you typically don’t start learning until industry. HYPER gives you that chance to practice those skills.”
|Kevin Cavender (2017)|
|“It’s a marathon, not a sprint. If you’re working on a project for long enough, if you don’t take a little time off… you’re going to get burnt out quickly, and you won’t enjoy anything. Do your research early, and do it well.”||Brandt Pedrow (2016)|
|“Resource constraints will nearly always force you to compromise on “good enough” work, especially in industry. Not your best work, or your most clever work, or the work you’d think you’d be most proud of. Before making concessions however, it’s critical to take the time to try and figure out what that perfect work would look like.”
|Chris Chaney (2014)|
|What was the most important thing that you learned from HYPER? How did HYPER help you to become a professional?||“The most important thing I learned from HYPER was the importance of community… Working together and utilizing the strengths of your coworkers (and providing the same assistance to them when they need it) is a very important skill to have when working in an engineering team on multidisciplinary projects that have tight deadlines.”
|Chad Nixon (2014)|
|“No matter what you do after the lab or after school, the type of people and organization you surround yourself with will have a far greater impact on your life than what industry you go in or what company/organization you work for.”
|Kevin Cavender (2017)|
|“[Designing] my experimental test setup along with the hands on experience I gained from actually making the test setups really allowed me to hold my own once I got out in the work force and was expected to be able to go off and design a test fixture, or get out in a lab and run a test by myself.”
|Brandt Pedrow (2016)|
|“Projects seem to sort themselves out when everyone understands at least the fundamentals of what everyone else is working on… by taking the time to understand the problems we were all trying to solve (and in many cases assisting with the solutions) we were able to redirect resources and make sure certain aspects of the project were not significantly overdesigned, nor were our actions causing undue difficulty to others.”
|Chris Chaney (2014)|
|I was once told that FAIL stood for First Attempt in Learning. Did you ever encounter an experience at HYPER that supports this idea? If so, what was it, and what did you learn?||“Yes, a First Attempt in Learning that I experienced at HYPER was the importance of coefficients of thermal expansion when designing a cryogenic system with components of different materials (e.g., copper, steel, etc.). I had quite a few leaks in my initial setup due to copper components contracting more than steel components when cooled down to liquid nitrogen levels. That experience has stuck with me and is now something I always confirm through calculation when designing a system, even if its not a cryogenic one!”
|Chad Nixon (2014)|
|“Getting a problem wrong over 100 times made getting the right solution that much more satisfying, and the lessons learned that much stronger.”
|Kevin Cavender (2017)|
|“The most memorable one was when I had the inlet to my LH2 canister freeze nearly completely shut. I got lucky that it wasn’t completely frozen shut. It really taught me to consider my failure modes in better detail before getting in to testing. It also taught me that taking a moment to collect my thoughts can be more important in an emergency situation than just doing the first thing that comes to your mind. In many situations, if a test apparatus is designed properly, you have time to think through a situation before a catastrophic damage occurs.”
|Brandt Pedrow (2016)|
|“Attempt to plan for… failures when scoping a project. It not only helps assure proper time and material resources, but lessens the emotional impact when success is not achieved the first time.”
|Chris Chaney (2014)|
|If you were to come back to HYPER tomorrow, what would you hope would be different than when you were here? What would you hope would have stayed the same?
|“I would hope that the combined lab/office space still existed. All other research groups I have been a part of had separate office and laboratory spaces and I feel this reduces the opportunities for learning and building a community. Everyone can always use an extra set of hands or someone to bounce ideas off in the lab when designing and running experiments.”
“I would also hope the research conducted within HYPER would be more collaborative with other research groups at WSU. While I felt that there was a great community within HYPER, there was not a strong connection between any other research groups at WSU. This… is something that I think research programs at universities should strive for as it broadens perspectives by exposing students to other areas of research.”
|Chad Nixon (2014)|
|“I hope the experiences Jake allows students to have never goes away. Both in guidance and freedom to fail.”
|Kevin Cavender (2017)|
|“I would continue to hope that the same sense of teamwork and comradery was still present. “
|Brandt Pedrow (2016)|
|“A more formalized policy of paid shop services (inside and outside the university) and a budget to draw from would go a long way to bring more manufacturing flexibility to projects.”
“One thing I hope would remain the same for HYPER would be the somewhat fluid hedging of resources. Genii achieved what it did in part because we were able to shuffle time, materials, and tools… It would be unfortunate to lose this flexibility due to the more stringent auditing that might come with a large lab.”
|Chris Chaney (2014)|