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Hydrogen Properties for Energy Research (HYPER) Laboratory Cool. Fuel.

How we master engineering through daily practice

“How do you practice to perform as an engineer?” — HYPER lab mentor PK Northcutt II

The question was simple and sincere. But I (Jake Leachman) had no answer. I had been an ‘engineer’ for over a decade and was now teaching others to be ‘engineers’, but I had nothing. With a decade of experience practicing football, shotput and discus, Jazz trombone, you name it; I had practiced for decades but could not identify a singular act or trait in engineering that could be considered deliberate ‘practice’ as I had, well, practiced with these other professional performances. Sure I’d given students homework problems to do … » More …

How to make cryogenic Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) shields

MLI Basics

The Multi-Layer Insulation (MLI) Shield (aka thermal radiation blanket) is very important in cryogenic systems. MLI shields insulate components from thermal energy transferred via light on rockets, satellites, and cryogenic experiments. The shield consists of 10s of alternating layers of polymer mesh and reflective mylar (metalized nylon) film. To understand how MLI blankets work, consider an equation approximating the resistance to radiative heat transfer:

R_rad= 1/(A_s σϵ4(T_s^2+T_sur^2)(T_s^2+T_sur))

where As = radiating surface area, σ = Stefan-Boltzmann constant, ϵ= emissivity, Ts = the absolute surface temperature, Tsur = absolute surroundings temperature. Or more generally: q” = σϵ(T_sur^4-T_s^4) assuming the surface is at lower temperature … » More …

The Sounds of Hydrogen

Hydrogen is the simplest atom or molecule; comprising 75% of the known mass of the universe. No atom or molecule has a more fundamental role. So to compliment our post on the Colors of Hydrogen we asked ourselves, what does hydrogen sound like? More specifically, can we develop a fundamental scale of hydrogen tones? And if we’re lucky, this scale will give us a new feel for the complex physical interactions of hydrogen in the universe.

Traditional musical scales are built on ratios. For example, an octave between notes has a ratio of 2:1 for the frequency. At 440 Hz, the pitch produced is … » More …